谓语动词 语态 （主动语态和被动语态）
非谓语动词 分词 （现在分词和过去分词）
The news that the Chinese team won the gold medal was very encouraging.
(P.51, Senior Book 2B)
The people performing all play different instrument. (P.49, Senior Book2B)
Polluted rivers and lakes have also been a cause of death. (P.52, Senior Book2A)
现在分词performing作后置定语，修饰the people; 过去分词polluted作定语修饰rivers and lakes。
So he left France, preferring to give up the fortune that would one day come to him, and went to live in English. (P.57, Senior Book2B)
现在分词短语 preferring to give up the fortune that would one day come to him 作状语，表示he left France and went to live in England 的原因。
Well known for his expert advice, he was able to help a great number of people with their personal affairs. (P.14 Senior Book2B)
过去分词短语well known for his expert advice 也充当状语，表示原因。
分词短语充当状语时，其作用相当于一个状语从句，因此都可以用状语从句替代。Well known for his expert advice = Because he was known for his expert advice,显然，按照修辞的标准衡量，分词短语较状语从句更为精练。
They broke into the uncle’s bedroom and found the man lying on the floor, dead.
(P.16, Senior Book2B)
I can see it fastened to a nail next to the hole in the wall, but it is not fastened to that wire. (P.16 Senior Book2B)
The gate must be kept shut so that the animals do not escape. (P.53,Senior Book2A)
以上三句划线的部分都是宾语补足语,其中第三句的shut在主动语态中是过去分词做宾补,改为被动语态后,主动语态的宾语gate变为被动语态的主语,因此语法上称之为 “主补”。宾语补足语是汉语所没有的句子成分，然而却类似于汉语中的兼语。在英语中，宾语同宾语补足语之间具有逻辑上的主谓或主表关系，这是理解宾语补足语时必须搞清的最基本的概念。第一句中的man是宾语，和宾语补足语lying on the floor之间具有逻辑上的主谓关系，man发出lying on the floor 的动作。第二句中it 是宾语，同宾语补足语fastened to a nail next to the hole in the wall具有逻辑上的被动的主谓关系。
There are lots of good English language programmes broadcast on TV or the radio in China. (P.46, Senior Book1A)
过去分词短语broadcast on TV or the radio in China 作定语修饰programmes, broadcast 同它所修饰的名词programmes 具有动宾关系，即broadcast programmes on TV or the radio…，因此必须用过去分词。
Two days later I received a letter offering me the job. (P.34-35, Senior Book2B)
现在分词短语offering me the job是名词letter的定语，offering同它所修饰的名词letter具有逻辑上的主谓关系，如果将现在分词短语转换成定语从句，这种“主谓关系”则更为明确：Two days later I received a letter which offered me the job。
You often see musicians performing in the streets. (P.54, Senior Book2B)
宾语musicians和宾语补足语performing 具有逻辑上的主谓关系，musicians发出perform 的动作，宾语补足语必须用现在分词。
Although we may not realize it, when we talk with others we make ourselves understood not just by words. (P.14, Senior Book2A)
作宾语补足语的过去分词understood同宾语ourselves 为动宾关系，即understand ourselves，此处的意思是“使我们自己被别人所理解”。
In Arab countries, you eat using the fingers of your right hand; the left hand is not used at all. (P.14, Senior Book2A)
现在分词短语 using the fingers of your right hand 作方式状语修饰谓语动词eat。之所以用现在分词，是因为using 同句子的主语you 有逻辑上的主谓关系。换言之，句子的主语 you既发出谓语动作eat，又发出非谓语动词using 所表示的动作。
Dr. Watson and I will spend the night locked in your room. ( P.15 Senior Book2B)
过去分词短语locked in your room充当spend the night的方式状语。lock 同句子的主语Dr. Watson and I的逻辑关系为动宾关系——“lock Dr. Watson and I in your room”。
The poor of the cities and the peasants in the country, having lived such a hard life for so long, took up their guns and knives and began to kill the rich nobles. (P.58, Senior Book2B)
Considering that Charles would be sentenced to death, he went to a chemist’s shop and bought some special medicine. (P. 58 , Senior Book2B)
Given advice by the famous detective, the young lady was no longer afraid. (P.17, Senior Book2B)
The lady returned home, followed by Mr. Holmes and Dr. Watson. (P.17, Senior Book2B)
The temperature is –15°C. It is freezing outside. ( P.51, Senior Book2B)
Children are afraid of the stone figures in the temple which look so frightening. ( P.51, Senior Book2B )
which代表先行词the stone figures 的含义，在定语从句中作主语。frightening是系动词look的表语，表示主语the stone figures的形象特征。
One quarter of the shores of the Mediterranean are polluted. (P.52, Senior Book2A )
②surprise, excite, interest, frighten, worry, please, 等动词具有共同的特点，他们的意思都是“使……（人）…怎么样”。这类动词充当表语时区别现在分词或过去分词的方法比较简单：如果主语是表示“人”的词语，表语用过去分词；主语是表示“事”或“物”的词语，表语用现在分词。
We were getting very worried. (P.61, Senior Book2A )
“The lion! It must be the lion from the zoo!” Mrs. Cousins was frightened. (P.69, Senior Book2A)
以上两句的主语分别是 “we”和 “Mrs. Cousins”，表语用过去分词worried 和frightened。
The news that the Chinese team won the gold medal was very encouraging. (P.51, Senior Book2B)
现在分词 进行或与谓语动作同时 主动概念
过去分词 完成 被动概念
Most of the people ______ to the party were famous scientists. (1987年高考试题)
A. invited B. to invited
C. being invited D. inviting
试题分析：试题意图是考察分词作定语的知识，句子主语的汉语意思为“受到邀请出席晚会的大多数人”。选项 A、C均表示被动，区别在于invited表示“已经受到邀请出席晚会”；being invited表示“正在受到邀请出席晚会”。句子是一般过去时，因此答案为A。
The first textbooks ______ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. ( 1994年高考试题)
A. having written B. to be written
C. being written D. written
In parts of Asia you must not sit with your feet pointing at another person. (P.14, Senior Book2A)
The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back. (1991年高考试题)
A. being tied B. having tied
C. to be tied D. tied
With his son ______, the old man felt unhappy. (北京西城区试题一)
A. to disappoint B. to be disappointed
C. disappointing D. being disappointed
The key______，she went through her handbag carefully.（2000年长沙模拟试题）
A. hadn’t been found B. having not been found
C. not having been found D. wasn’t found
试题分析：选项A、D均为谓语形式，选择其中的任何一项前半部分便成为一个分句，与后面的分句必须使用连词。以表示前后分句的逻辑关系，因此全部排除。选项B是现在分词的完成被动式，凡非谓语动词的否定形式，not必须加在最前面，因此也应排除。not having been found同其逻辑主语the key构成独立主格结构，作原因状语。本试题中句子的主语 she不能充当分词的逻辑主语。
______ you should have no trouble with the difficult work. (北京崇文区统一练习一)
A. Knowing this B. If you are knowing this
C. From knowing this D. If you have knowing this
试题分析：分词作状语时一般都可以转换为状语从句。本试题的选项B、D作为条件状语从句，时态不正确，应该排除。选项A 的knowing this 的逻辑主语同句子的主语一致，符合要求，为正确答案。
Written in a hurry, ______ . How can it be satisfactory? (2001年广州市综合测试一)
A.they found many mistakes in the report
B.Sam made lots of mistakes in the report
C.There are plenty of mistakes in the report
D.The report is full of mistakes
试题分析：这时一道非常典型的试题。四个选项均为完整的句子，初看起来似乎不容易领悟试题的意图。其实，本题的意图仍然是考察分词作状语的知识。抓住试题意图就容易产生正确的思路——哪个句子的主语能够同过去分词written的逻辑主语一致。沿着这个思路向前走，不难想到the report was written in a hurry, 试题的答案不言自明。
动词see, hear, feel, watch, notice, observe等可以用不带to 的不定式作宾语补足语，也可以用现在分词作宾语补足语，但意思有区别。不定式作宾语补足语表示动作的全过程已经完成；现在分词作宾语补足语表示动作在谓语动作发生的瞬间正在进行。
The missing boys were last seen ______ near the river. (1994年高考试题)
A. playing B. to be playing
C. play D. to play
Using body language in a correct way will help communicate with people and make the stay in a foreign country easy and comfortable. (P.16, Senior Book2A)
Checking information is very important. (P.20, Senior Book2A)
Doing this can save a lot of time and money. (P.20, Senior Book2A)
Learning new words and useful expressions is very important for me. (P.22, Senior Book2A)
After a short while he started directing films himself. (P.26, Senior Book2A)
Disney stopped drawing and watched the mouse. (P.2, Senior Book2A)
Scores of people went there in the first few days after its opening. (P.3, Senior Book 1B )
The money spent on educating a black child was just one fourth of that spent on each white child. (P.38, Senior Book2)
I was pleased that the manager had decided not to be angry with me for having been so rude. (P.35, Senior Book2B)
having been 是动名词being的完成式，做介词for 的宾语。
1.下列动词只能用动名词做宾语， 不能用不定式：suggest, finish, enjoy, practise, miss, avoid, require, delay, excuse, pardon, consider, deny, escape, can’t help, risk 等。
Besides, I enjoy learning about new things from politics to sports and music. (P.22, Senior Book2A)
Then for a period of several weeks we practise doing the play. (P.25, Senior Book2A)
①remember, forget, regret后用动名词做宾语表示已经发生过了的动作；用不定式做宾语表示将要发生或尚未发生的动作。
remember to do 表示记住要去做某事；remember doing表示记得曾经做过某事。regret doing表示后悔做了某事；regret to say (tell)表示遗憾地说（告诉）。
---- The light in the office is still on.
---- Oh, I forgot ______. (1991年全国高考试题)
A. turning it off B. turn it off
C. to turn it off D. having turned it off
---- You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.
---- Well, now I regret ______ that. （1995年全国高考试题）
A. to do B. to be doing
C. to have done D. having done
②try to do 表示“设法做”（克服困难、障碍努力做）；try doing表示“试着做”（对结果没有把握，尝试去做，看看是否可以）。
The little time we have together we try ______ wisely. (上海市1995年高考试题)
A. spending it B. to spend it
C. to spend D. spending that
the little time we have together是spend的宾语，前置以示强调。正确的答案为C。
③like (love) to do 表示具体的一次性动作；like (love) doing表示倾向性的动作。
Little Tom should love ______ to the theatre this evening. （1992年全国高考试题）
A. to be taken B. to take
C. being taken D. taken
Right now you need to stay still until help comes. ( P.43, Senior Book2B)
The patient will need looking after.
b)当主语是表示“事”或“物”的词语时，主语同need往往为动宾关系。这时，用need to be done或need doing 均可，但要注意need doing 是用动名词的主动式表示被动的概念。
These shoes need repairing.
These shoes need to be repaired.
You have come just in time to help us.”
“Fine. What needs ______?” (1985年广东高考试题)
A. I do B. done
C. to be done D. to do
⑤stop to do 和stop doing 的语法结构不同，因此意思也就不同。stop doing中的doing 是动名词做宾语，表示stop动作的对象，意思为“停止做某事”。Stop to do 中的不定式to do 是目的状语，表示“停止正在做的事的目的是要做某事”。
"Let's have a break."
"Not now. I don't want to stop ______ yet." （1985年广东高考试题）
A. study B. to study
C. for studying D. studying
⑥mean doing 的意思是“意谓着”、“就是”。
I meant to tell you yesterday, but you were not in the office.(P.13, Senior Book2B)
Missing the train means waiting for an hour.
mean to do 的意思是“意欲做……”或“打算做……”。
What do you mean to do?
He has always insisted on his being called Dr. Turner instead of Mr. Turner.
his 是动名词being called的逻辑主语，但同call 构成被动关系。如果是主动关系应为call him Dr. Turner。
They insisted on ______ a thorough rest before going back to work.
A. him to take B. he took
C. his taking D. his taken
______ made her mother very angry.
A. Helen’s married Jack B. Helen has married Jack
C. Helen marrying Jack D. Helen’s marrying Jack
Tony was very unhappy for ______ to the party. （2000年上海市高考试题）
A. having not been invited B. not having invited
C. having not invited D. not having been invited
答案为 D。having been invited是动名词的完成被动式，表示否定的not必须放在动名词结构的最前面。
动名词的被动式同现在分词的被动式相同----being done。 动名词被动式的使用主要看动名词和句子主语的逻辑关系：主谓关系用主动式，动宾关系用被动式。
While shopping, people sometimes can’t help ______ into buying something they don’t really need. （1996年上海市高考试题）
A. to persuade B. persuading
C. being persuaded D. be persuaded
can’t help 后必须用动名词做宾语，persuade 同句子主语people具有逻辑上的动宾关系，因此答案C正确。
He dare not go home for fear of ______ .
A. punishing B. punished C. being punished D. to be punished
look forward to 盼望、预期 be (get) used to 习惯于
object to 反对 devote…to 献身于、专心于
get down to 认真着手进行、认真处理
They have just come here to get down to repairing the road.
We are looking forward to hearing from you.
Do you object to my closing the window?
I think it would be a good idea to have comments from secretaries and typists who are already using it. (P.25, Senior Book3)
How long will it take you to complete the trip? (P.9, Senior Book2B)
I have decided to take a lot of cabbage in vinegar. (P.7, Senior Book3)
Agriculture first started about 10,000years ago, when people began to grow crops in the river valleys of the Nile in Egypt, in the Middle East and in India. （P.20, Senior Book3）
The dusty air makes it difficult to get a clear picture of space. (P.10, Senior Book2B)
以上句子中，it为形式宾语；difficult为宾语补足语；不定式短语to get a clear picture of space是真宾语。
It has been proved that the way to produce the most food is to let farmers grow crops either to feed their family or to sell. (P. 22, Senior Book3)
A better method is to take waste far out to sea in ships where the wind and waves break it down. (P.32. Senior Book3)
…but it is thought that 500 million people in the world do not have enough to eat, which is about one in ten. (P.20, Senior Book3)
Farmers have the right to sell their crops to the EU. (P.22, Senior Book3)
Third, a lot of irrigated land has become too salty to grow plants. (P. 20, Senior Book3)
本句中的to grow plants是has become too salty的结果状语。
Various things can be done to increase the food supply in the world. )P.20, Senior Boo9k3)
to increase the food supply in the world是目的状语。
不定式表示目的极为常见。有时为了强调目的,可以用in order to或so as to ；有时将不定式短语置于句首也是表示目的常见用法。
Cook went up and down the river in order to chart all the dangerous rock. (P.8, Senior Book3)
The lion looked at her as she swung the pork in her hand so as to attract the lion’s attention. (P.69, Senior Book2A)
To become a top gymnast, it is important to start when very young. (P.50, Senior Book3)
To do that, it must find a place where it can keep fairly warm; and it must be a place where its enemy cannot find it. (P.68, Senior Book3)
only to do 是不定式做结果状语的典型用法，这种“结果”往往是预想不到的。
Yesterday I went to see him only to find he had been away on business.
He got to the station only to be told the train had gone.
不定式做宾语补足语时有两种情况：绝大多数做宾语补足语的不定式用带to的动词不定式；动词see, hear, watch, feel, notice, observe, have, make, let后做宾语补足语的不定式主动语态时必须用不带to的不定式；改为被动语态又必须用to 。
What stores do you want me to order? (P.7, Senior Book3)
But Cook ordered the crews to throw over the side of the ship guns, iron balls, pots and chains and even stores to raise the boat in the water. (P.10, Senior Book3)
And I advise you not to eat fruit that isn’t ripe in future. (P.1, Senior Book1B)
I read about you in the newspaper and decided to come and hear you play. (P.68, Senior Book2B)
John was made ______ the truck for a week as a punishment.
A. to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing
They are said to be building another bridge across the Changjiang River.
He pretended to be doing his homework carefully when his mother came in.
I’m sorry to have done that, I didn’t mean to be so rude. (P.43, Senior Book3)
Between 1850and 1910 the bison population is thought to have fallen from 60 million to just a few hundred. (P.75, Senior Book3)
But some people don’t want good farmland to be built on. (P.25, Senior Book2B)
good farmland是句子的宾语，to be built on是宾语补足语，宾语和宾语补足语之间总是具有逻辑上的主谓或主表关系。因此，good farmland是不定式to be built on 的逻辑主语，同时它们又具有逻辑动宾关系，不定式必须同被动式。
He has asked to be introduced to the pianist. (P.68, Senior Book2B)
不定式短语to be introduced to the pianist的逻辑主语是句子的主语he，同时he同introduce又有逻辑上的动宾关系，因此用被动式。
①The question is difficult to answer.
②The shirt is too small to wear.
③I find English easy to learn .
I’m not sure whether to go to the one about accidents. (P.1, Senior Book3)
How to get rid of waste is a great problem for the world today. (P.32, Senior Book3)
The problem is how to feed a growing world population of over 6 billion. (P.20, Senior Book3)
As soon as the reporters know what to write about, they get down to work. (P.20, Senior Book2A)
China is the first countries in the world to study the science of farming. (P.38, Senior Book 1B)
不定式短语修饰the first countries，同时the first countries又是to study the sciences of farming的逻辑主语。
Years of hard work, very little food, only a small room to live in and never a moment’s rest. (P.13, Senior Book1B)
She had little money to live on. (P.3, Senior Book3)
I really don’t know what topic to write about. (to write about what topic)
Would you please give me a pen to write with? (to write with a pen)
不定式做定语时，被动的概念应给予格外重视。通常的情况是不定式动作的执行者就在句子中。以上述三个句子为例，to live on的执行者是she；to write about 的执行者是I；to write with的执行者则是me。因此，以上三句中的不定式都用主动式。
The action to be taken is correct.
--Have you got anything ______ there?
--No, I will go there myself. Thank you just the same.
A. to be taken B. been taken
C. taken D. to take
在 there be句型中，不定式做定语极为常见，但使用不定式的一般式和被动式意义不同。不定式的一般式表示“会有人去做……”，通常可根据上下文在不定式前加一个逻辑主语。
There are plenty of interesting places（for you） to visit. (P.33, Senior Book1B)
There was nowhere (for anybody) to hide. (P.58, Senior Book3)
Here is a game to play. (P.33, Senior Book3)
There is nothing to be gained by pretending.
= Nothing can be gained by pretending.
There is a lot of work to be done.
= A lot of work has to be done.
Lincoln said that it was not right for the South to break away from the Union. (P.50, Senior Book1A)
It was easy for them to carry a guitar on their travel. (P.42, Senior Book1A)
在“It is +形容词”结构的句子中，不定式的逻辑主语可能用介词for ,也可能用介词of。当这个形容词同不定式的逻辑主语构成逻辑上的主表关系时，介词用of，否则就用for。
①Is is very kind of you to give me so much help.
= You are very kind to give me so much help.（不定式的逻辑主语you可以同形容词kind构成逻辑上的主表关系，介词用of）
②It is important for us to learn English well.
1. ________many times , but he still couldn't understand it .
2. ________many times, he still couldn't understand it.
A. Having been told B. Told
C. He was told D. Though he had been told
3. ________to the left, you'll find the post office.
4. If you ________to the left, you'll find the post office.
5. ________to the left , and you'll find the post office .
A. Turning B. To turn C. Turn D. Turned
分析：句1. 用连词but 引导并列句子，因此，前面也是个独立句子成分，故选C。
句3. 同句2，选A 。
句4. 前面用if 引导从句，故选C ，构成从句谓语。
1. ________no buses, we have to walk home.
A. There being B. It were C. There were D. It being
2. ______Sunday I shall have a quiet day at home .
分析：句1. 表示“没有公共汽车”，应用“there be”结构，即逻辑主语是“there”，故选A 。
1. ______from space , the earth looks blue .
2.______from space , we can see the earth is blue .
A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D. See
3. The dirty clothes ______ , the girl hung them up outside .
4. ______ the dirty clothes, the girl hung them up outside.
A. was washed B. washed C. were washed D. having washed
分析：句3. 前面应用非谓语动词作句子的状语，逻辑主语是“the dirty clothes”，和动词搭配表示“衣服被洗”，故选B。
句4. 逻辑主语为句子的主语“the girl”，表示“女孩洗衣服”，为主动关系，故选D。
1. The building ______now will be a restaurant .
2. The building ______next year will be a restaurant .
3. The building ______last year is a restaurant.
A. having been built B. to be built
C. being built D. built?
句1中 now 说明大楼正在被修，故用进行式，选C。
句2中next year 说明大楼将在明年被修，故用表将来的不定式，选B。
句3中 last year 说明大楼已被修，但不能选，因为现在分词的完成式不能作定语，故用过去分词，选D。
1. He stood there ______for his mother .
2. ______for two hours , he went away .
A. waiting B. to wait C. waited D. Having waited
句2表示已经等了两个小时，发生在谓语动词“went away ”之前，故用完成式，选D 。
What is the reason for ______there?
A. not your going B. not your go C. your not going D. you not to go?
1. ______won't be of much help. (A)
A .Tom's going B. Tom going C. Tom to go D. Tom goes
2. They managed _____the meeting room before the guests arrived. (C)
A. finishing to clean B. finishing cleaning
C. to finish cleaning D. to finish to clean?
3. We must find a room big enough _____. (B)
A. for all of us to live B. for all of us to live in
C. to live in all of us D. of all of us to live
4. _____a teacher , I should set a good example to students . (A)
A. Being B. Having been C. To be D. As I being
5. _____a teacher, one must first be their pupil. (C)
A. Being B. Having been? C. To be D. To have been
6. It was stupid _____ your advice. (C)
A. for me not to take B. for me not taking
C. of me not to take D. of me not taking
7. The teacher told him to speak louder _____by, everybody. (A)
A. so as to be heard B. so as to hear
C. in order that heard D. in order to hear?
8. They suggested _____ the sports meet till next Tuesday. (B)
A. us to put off B. our putting off
C. us of putting off D. our put off
9. The doctor gave me some medicine, _____ three times a day before meals. (C)
A. to take B. to be taking C. to be taken D. I took it
10. Thanking them for their kindness, he said that the old lady really appreciated _____by them. (D)
A. visiting B. visited? C. to be visited D. being visited
11. _____made her parents very angry . (B)
A. Jane's engaging Black B. Jane's being engaged to Black
C. Jane having engaged to Black D. Jane has engaged to Black
12. Don't you think it any good_____ in public places? (B)
A. forbidding smoking B. to forbid smoking
C. to forbid to smoke D. forbidding to smoke
13. China is a _____ country and we should introduce _____ science and technology from the _____ countries. (B)
A. developed; advanced; developed B. developing; advanced; developed
C. developing; advancing; developing D. developed; advancing ; developing
14. _____, the work can be done much better . (C)
A. Given more time B. We had been given more time
C. More time given D. If more time had given
15. _____from space, the earth , with water _____seventy percent of its surface , looks like a "blue ball". (D)
A. Seen; covered B. Seeing; covering
C. Seeing; covered D. Seen; covering
16. People always shake hands with each other when _____. (C)
A. to introduce B. introduce C. introduced D. introducing
17. _____, tears ran down her pale face. (A)
A. No word said B. Say no word?
C. Not saying a word D. Without saying a word?
18. Tigers _____ meat -eating animals, _____meat. (A)
A. belonged to; fed on B. belonging to; feed on
C. were belonged to ; feed on D. belonging to ; feeding on
19. We must take measures to prevent our earth _____. (C)
A. to be polluted B. from polluting
C. from being polluted D. from polluted
20. As the stone was too heavy to move, I left it _____ on the ground. (C)
A. laying B. lay C. lying D. lain.
1. He was in low spirits and even consider _____(go ) away. (going )
2. Practise _____( put ) your hand to the ground.( putting)
3. I can’t help ______( have ) the trip to Britain.( having)
4. Don’t tell me you always escape _____( fine) because you have a fast sports car.(being fined)
5. Leave off ______(bite) your nails! (biting)
6. He didn’t feel like ______( work ), so he suggested _____( spend ) the day in the garden.(working, spending)
7. You certainly mustn’t miss _______( see ) the wonderful film. (seeing)
8. The doctor advised ______( stay ) longer in hospital.(staying)
9. We appreciate your ______( want ) ______( help ) us in our difficulties.(wanting to help)
10. Michael has delayed ______( write ) to her till today. (writing)
11. The law forbids ______( sell )liquor to children.(selling)
12. They all suggested ______( give ) more chances. (giving)
13. Can you imagine ______( leave ) standing outside for a whole night.(leaving)
14. They built the banks to prevent the area from ______( flood).(being flooded)
1. I used to see these boys ____ (play) on the playground. (Play)
2. I saw them _____ (play) the computer this afternoon. (playing)
3. She was surprised to find the house _____( break ) into when she went back home.(broken)
4. Unfortunately, he got his wallet _____ (steal) on the bus. (stolen)
5. He won’t have us _____( criticize ) him.(criticize)
6. It’s a bad habit to leave the work ______ (undo). (undone)
7. Yesterday I caught him _____ (take) my dictionary when I went into the
1. Do you know the man _____ (speak) at the meeting? (speaking)
2. Do you know the man _____ (praise) at the meeting? (praised)
3. The building _____ (put) up just now is our library. (put)
4. The building _____ (put) up now will be our new company. (being put)
5. The building _____ (put ) up next year will be our new company.( to be put)
6. There was an old temple _____ (stand) at the top of the hill. (standing)
7. There is a sports meeting _____ (hold) next Tuesday.(to be held)
8. There was an old man ______ (live) in the village. (living)
1._____ (see) those picture, he couldn’t help thinking of those days in Yan’an. (Seeing)
2._____ (turn) round, Fanny found an ambulance driving up.( Turning)
3_____ (water) the vegetables, they began to pick up the apples. (Having watered)
4._____ (finish) the work, he went back home on foot.(Having finished)
5._____ (inspire ) by Dr. Chen’s speech, they decided to study maths harder.(Inspired)
6._____ (persuade) by her mother, she gladly went there alone. (Persuaded)
7. Warmly _____ (praise) for his work, he was too excited to fall asleep. (praised)
8._____ (surround), the enemy found nowhere to hide and had to give up. (Surrounded)
9. Once _____ (arm), we are afraid of nothing.(armed)
10. While _____ (cross) the street, look out for cars. (crossing)
11. While_____( criticize ),she cried.(criticized)
12. She came earlier than _____ (expect). (expected)
13. Everything goes well as _____ (plan). (planned)
14. ____ (give) more time, we are sure to do it better. (Given)
1. how to do the homework, I went to ask my teacher for help.
A. Not to know B. Not knowing C. Knowing not D. Not known
2. Deeply , I thanked her again and again.
A. being moving B. moved C. moving D. to be moved
3. With winter on, it's time to buy warm clothes.
A. came B. comes C. come D. coming
4. the office, the foreign visitors were shown round the teaching building.
A. Having shown B. Showing C. Has shown D. Having been shown
5. He went from door to door, waste papers and magazines.
A. gathering B. gathered C. gather D. being gathered
6. The student corrected his paper carefully, the professor's suggestions.
A. follow B. following C. followed D. being followed
7. The price will save you one dollar for each dozen.
A. reduce B. reducing C. reduced D. reduces
8. People in the city do not know the pleasure of country life.
A. live B. to live C. lived D. living
9. The foreigner tried his best, but he still couldn't make his point .
A. understand B. understanding C. to understand D. understood
10. The scientists were waiting to see the problem .
A. settle B. settled C. to settle D. settling
11. The library's study room is full of students for the exam.
A. busily prepared B. busy preparing C. busyly prepare D. are busily preparing
12. The ground is with leaves.
A. covering, falling B. covered, falling C. covered, fallen D. covering, fallen
13. Lessons easily were soon forgotten.
A. to learn B. learn C. learned D. learning
14. The wallet several days ago was found in the dustbin outside the building.
A. stolen, hidden B. stealing, hiding C. stealing, hidden D. stolen, hiding
15. A person a foreign language must be able to use the foreign language all about his own.
A. to learn, to forget B. learning, to forget
C. to learn, forgetting D. learning, forgetting
16. different kinds of pianos, the workers farther improved their quality
A. To produce B. Being produced C. Produced D. Having produced
17. The students in the university are all taking courses a degree.
A. coming to B. going to C. leading to D. turning to
18. Many things impossible in the past are very common today.
A. consider B. considering C. considered D. be considered
19. many times, he still couldn't understand.
A. Having been told B. Having told C. He having been told D. Telling
20. The old sick lady entered the hospital, her two sons.
A. to support B. supporting C. supported by D. having supported
1．Dozens of movies are known in this small town，which has been turned into a tourist attraction．
A．being made B．having been made C．to be made D．to have been made
2. to sunlight for too much time will do harm to one’s skin.
A. Exposed B. Having exposed C. Being exposed D. After being exposed
3. The way my father thought of enough money was to sell the horse and the house.
A. getting B. to get C. got D. to getting
4. the yard, I found it with lots of leaves.
A. Entering; covering; falling B. Entering; covered; fallen
C. Entering; covering; fallen D. Having entered; covered; falling
5. The book is said into many languages.
A. to translate B. to have been translated C. translating D. to have translated
6. He hurried to the railway station, only the train he meant had gone away.
A. found; to catch B. finding; catching C. to find; to catch D. and found; catching
7．--I’d like to learn more about the Doha Asian Games.
--Better try the CCTV website, and you are likely the information in no time.
A．to visit; to get B．to visit; getting C．visiting; to get D．visiting; getting
8．The Chinese government, in specific efforts to prevent and control HIV/AIDS, has increased HIV testing and monitoring among the general public.
A．involving B．involved C．having involved D．to be involved
9. After his journey from abroad, Richard Jones returned home, _______.
A. tired B. tiring C. being tired D. having been tired
10. Don't be discouraged. _____ things as they are and you will enjoy every day of your life.
A. Taking B. To take C. Take D. Taken
11. It is fairly common in Africa for there ___________ a group of expert musicians surrounded by others who also join in the performances.
A. being B. to be C. be D. is
12. _____ in the collapsed mine for 7 days, the workers were saved.
A. To have been trapped B. To be trapped C. Having been trapped D. Being trapped
13. A television programme ______ “Kim’ll fix it” invites viewers to say what they really want to do.
A. being called B. having been called C. calling D. called
14．At the 15th Asian Games. China won 165 gold medals, first of all the competing countries.
A．ranked B．ranking C．to rank D．rank
15．Guangzhou Karaoke businesses are reported a 12-yuan royalty fee (版权税) for each karaoke room, a charge set by the China Audio and Video Association.
A．to refuse B．to have refused C．refusing D．having refused
16．The students are forbidden, unless they have special passes, after 11 pm.
A．from staying out B．to stay out C．staying out D．stay out
17. Mr Smith, boss of a car company, used to go there and watch bicycles __________.
A. to repair B. repairing C. being repaired D. repaired
18. The transportation will improve a lot in Nantong, with another two bridges ________ over the Changjiang River in the near future.
A. to be constructed B. to construct C. being constructed D. constructing
19. The news he looked forward to .
A. came at lastest B. coming at the least C. coming at the lasts D. came recently
20. sight of his former neighbour, he stopped with him.
A. Catching ; to shake hands B. Catching ; to shake hand
C. Having caught ; shaking hands D. Being caught ; shaking hand
21. The largest collection, ______in England , was one of about 200 000 silver pennies.
A. to be found B. has found C. being found D. ever found
22. Finally they managed to find a path _______.
A. to follow B. following C. to go D. going
23. ________ himself with great strength, he raised himself.
A. Filled B. To fill C. Being filled D. Filling
24. I found an old pot _____ in the ground.
A. buried????? B. being buried??? C. burying??? D. to be buried
25. The answer ______ the teacher, she asked the little boy to try a second time.
A. disappointed???????? B. disappointing
C. being disappointed??? D. having been disappointed
26. _____ two years to ________after the sick woman, she badly needed a holiday.
A. Devoting herself; look????? B. Devoted; looking
C. Devoting; looking?????? D. Devoted; looked
27. John did quite well in his exams, ________ how little he studied.
A. consider B. considering C. considered D. to consider
28._______ the right decisions ________ the future is probably the most important thing we'll ever do in our lives.
A. Making; concerned B. Make; concerning
C. To make; concerned D. Making; concerning
29. ________ was what he had never expected and was just too upsetting to him.
A. Cheated again and again B. Having been cheated again and again
C. Having cheated again D. Being cheating again and again
30. The new engine ____________ right now will be used to be fixed in the new type of airplane soon.
A. to be experimented on B. being experimented on
C. having been experimented on D. experimented on
31．Rose found her toy bear _______ under the chair.
A. hiding B. to hide C. having hidden D. hidden
32. _______ after a long walk, Kate called and said she couldn't come to the party.
A. Worn out B. Having worn out C. To be worn out D. To wear out
33. ______, the car could not be started.
A. He lost the key B. The key was lost
C. Having lost the key D. The key having been lost
34. it with me should be the best choice. Trust me.
A. When left B. Leaving C. If you leave D. Leave
1. —It’s a long time since I saw my sister.
—_______________ her this weekend? （全国卷I）
A. Why not visit B. why not to visit
C. Why not visiting D. Why don’t visit
2. —The last one __________________ pays the meal.
A. arrived B. arrives C. to arrive D. arriving
3. I smell something __________ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? （全国卷I）
A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt
4. At the beginning of class, the noise of desks ____ could be heard outside the classroom. （全国卷II）
A. opened and closed B. to be opened and closed
C. being opened and closed D. to open and close
5. After a knock at the door, the child heard his mother’s voice ______ him. （上海卷）
A. calling B. called C. being called D. to call
6. There is nothing more I can try ______ you to stay, so I wish you good luck. （上海卷）
A. being persuaded B. persuading C. to be persuaded D. to persuade
7. The Town Hall ______ in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that time. （上海卷）
A. to be completed B. having been completed C. completed D. being completed
8. The country has already sent up three unmanned spacecraft, the most recent ________at the end of last March. （山东卷）
A．has been launched B．having been launched
C．being launched D．to be launched
9. Please remain _________ until the plane has come to a complete stop. （山东卷）
A．to seat B．to be seated C．seating D．seated
10. John received an invitation to dinner, and with his work ________, he gladly accepted it. （安徽卷）
A. finished B. finishing C. having finished D. was finished
11. —Robert is indeed a wise man.
—Oh, yes. How often I have regretted ______ his advice! （安徽卷）
A. to take B. taking C. not to take D. not taking
12. —Excuse me sir, where is Room 301?
—Just a minute. I’ll have Bob ____you to your room. （北京卷）
A. show B. shows C. to show D. showing
13. He is a student at Oxford University, __________ for a degree in computer science. （北京卷）
A. studied B. studying C. to have studied D. to be studying
14. Jenny hopes that Mr. Smith will suggest a good way to have her written English in a short period. （福建卷）
A. improved B. improving C. to improve D. improve
15. —Come on, please give me some ideas about the project.
—Sorry. With so much work my mind, I almost break down. （福建卷）
A. filled B. filling C. to fill D. being filled
16. As the light turned green, I stood for a moment, not _________, and asked myself what I was going to do. （湖南卷）
A. moved B moving C. to move D. being moved
17. “Things _________ never come again!” I couldn’t help talking to myself. （湖南卷）
A. lost B. losing C. to lose D. have lost
18. —Can I smoke here?
—Sorry. We don’t allow ______ here. （江苏卷）
A. people smoking B. people smoke C. to smoke D. smoking
19. My parents have always made me ______ about myself, even when I was twelve. （江苏卷）
A. feeling well B. feeling good C. feel well D. feel good
20. He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them ______ in his lectures. （江苏卷）
A. interested B. interesting C. interest D. to interest
21. When asked why he went there, he said he was sent there for a space flight. （江西卷）
A. training B. being trained C. to have trained D. to be trained
22. that she didn’t do a good job, I don’t think I am abler than her. （陕西卷）
A. To have said B. Having said C. To say D. Saying
23. All the staff in our company are considering to the city centre for the fashion show. （上海春）
A．to go B．going C．to have gone D．having gone
24. the safety of gas, the government has checked the city’s gas supply system thoroughly. （上海春）
A．To ensure B．Ensuring C．Having ensured. D．To have ensured
25. She wants her paintings in the gallery, but we don t think they would be very popular. （上海春）
A．display B．to display C．displaying D．displayed
26. Peter received a letter just now ________ his grandma would come to see him soon. （四川卷）
A．said B．says C．saying D．to say
27. The flowers his friend gave him will die unless ________ every day. （四川卷）
A. watered B. watering C. water D. to water
28. The glass doors have taken the place of the wooden ones at the entrance, ________ in the natural light during the day. （天津卷）
A. to let B. letting C. let D. having let
29. The children talked so loudly at dinner table that I had to struggle ______.（浙江卷）
A. to be heard B. to have heard C. hearing D. being heard
30. ______ by a greater demand of vegetables, farmers have built more green houses. （浙江卷）
A. Driven B. Being driven C. To drive D. Having driven
31. The children went home from the grammar school, their lessons _______ for the day. （重庆卷）
A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished
32. The crowd cheered wildly at the sight of Liu Xiang, who was reported ______ the world record in the 110-meter hurdle race. （辽宁卷）
A. breaking B. having broken C. to have broken D. break
33. You can't imagine what difficulty we had ______ home in the snowstorm. （辽宁卷）
A. walked B. walk C. to walk D. walking
34. As a result of the serious flood, two-thirds of the buildings in the area . （陕西卷）
A. need repairing B. needs to repair C. needs repairing D. need to repair
1. I like getting up very early in summer. The morning air is so good ______.（全国I卷）
A. to be breathed B. to breathe C. breathing D. being breathed
2._______ in the fields on a March afternoon, he could feel the warmth of spring. （安徽卷）
A. To walk. B. Walking C. Walked D. Having walked
3. ______ in the queen for half an hour, the old man suddenly realized be had left the cheque in the car. （福建卷）
A. Waiting B. To wait C. Having Waited D. To have waited
4. – Can those ____ at the back of the classroom hear me? （福建卷）
A. seat B. sit C. seated D. sat
5. The trees _____ in the storm have been moved off the road. （湖南卷）
A. being blown down B. blown down C. blowing down D. to blow down
6. _____ the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. （湖南卷）
A. Completing B. Complete C. Completed D. To complete
7. To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English ______ as much as we can. （江苏卷）
A. speak. B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak
8. Lucy’s new job paid twice as much as she had made ______ in the restaurant. （山东卷）
A. working B. work C. to work D. worked
9. I hear they’ve promoted Tom, but he didn’t mention _____ when we talked on the phone. （江西卷）
A. to promote B. having been promoted C. having promoted D. to be promoted
10. We finished the run in less than half the time ____.（江西卷）
A. allowing B. to allow C. allowed D. allows
11. He was busy writing a story, only ______ once in a while to smoke a cigarette. （辽宁卷）
A. to stop B. stopping C. to have stopped D. having stopped
12. _________ around the Water Cube, we were then taken to see the Bird’s Nest for the 2008 Olympic Games. （陕西卷）
A. Having shown B. To be shown C. Having been shown D. To show
13. We had an anxious couple of weeks _____ for the results of the experiment. (四川卷)
A. wait B. to be waiting C. waited D. waiting
14. ______that he was in great danger, Eric walked deeper into the forest. （浙江卷）
A. Not realized B. Not to realize C. Not realizing D. Not to have realized
15. It is one of the funniest things ______ on the Internet so far this year. （浙江卷）
A. finding B. being found C. to find D. found
16. ______ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she’d like that little doll on her bed. （北京卷）
A. Seeing B. To see C. See D. Seen
17. –Did the book give the information you needed? （北京卷）
–Yes. But _____ it, I had to read the entire book.
A. to find B. find C. to finding D. finding
18. I feel greatly honored ____ into their society. （北京卷）
A. to welcome B. welcoming C. to be welcomed D. welcomed
19. _____ their hats into the air, the fans of the winning team let out loud shouts of victory. （天津卷）
A. To throw B. Thrown C. Throwing D. Being thrown
20. __ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. （重庆卷）
A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed
21. My?sister, an inexperienced rider, was found sitting on the bicycle ___ to balance it. (上海卷)
A. having tried B. trying C. to try D. tried
22. If there is a lot of work ___, I'm happy to just keep on until it is finished. (上海卷)
A. to do B. to be doing C. done D. doing
23. Something as simple as ___ some cold water may clear your mind and?relive pressure. (上海卷)
A. to drink B. drinking C. to be drinking D. drunk
24. Ideally ___ for Broadway theatre and Fifth Avenue, the New York Park hotel is a favourite with many guests. (上海卷)
A. locating B. being located C. having been located D. located
1-5BBDDA 6-10BCD DB 11-15BCCAD 16-20 DCCAC
1-5 DCBBB 6-10 CCBAC 11-15 BCDBB 16-20 BCADA 21-25 DADAB
26-30 CBDBB 31-34 DADB
1-5 ACACA 6-10 DCBDA 11-15DAB AB 16-20 BADDA 21-25 DBBAD
26-30 CABAA 31-34 BADA